„W zgodzie z naturą - LIFE+ dla Lasów Janowskich”

     The project area covers a vast and dense forest complex constitutes the northwest part of Solska Forest. It stretches from the valley of Vistula and the San Rivers in west including Lipsko Forests and Janowskie Forests, between the edge of the Lublin Upland in north and Bukowa River valley in south reaching the town of Frampol in east.

     Solska Forest is one of the biggest forest complexes in Poland. It stretching from the Vistula River valley in an easterly direction to the country border at a length of about 120 km. Within the area of Janowskie Forests prevails mostly forested landscape plain, varied with numerous shafts dune covered with pine forests (mostly in central part of area). According to the Polish physiographic division (Kondracki 2000) the project area is located in the meso-region Biłgorajska Plain called Puszczańska, which is the part of macro-region Sandomierz Basin.

     A characteristic feature of the area is the presence of a number of fishponds, where are carried out an extensive fishery management. There are nearly 150 ponds, with a total area over 1600 hectares in the complexes from 5 to 50 hectares. These facilities which have been built almost 150 years ago perfectly composed in the forest environment as a natural reservoirs. Through the area of refuge passes a few minor mid-forest rivers (Biała, Łukawica, Branew, Czartosowa, Trzebensz, Rakowa, Jodłówka and Bukowa) and few other watercourses with an indefinite names. Pond objects and rivers are natural habitats and the habitats of many species of animals and plants. Habitats occuring in these area:

  • 3130 The edges or drained water bottoms with communities of Littorelletea, Isoëto-Nanojuncetea,
  • 3260 Lowland and highland rivers with communities of Ranunculionfluitantis,
  • 3270 Flooded muddy riversides,

There are also species of animals like:

  • 1096 Brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri),
  • 1134 Amur bitterling (Rodeus sericeus amarus),
  • 1145 Loach (Misgurnus fossilis),
  • 1163 European bullhead (Cattus gobio),
  • 1166 Great crested newt (Triturus cristatus),
  • 1188 Fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina),
  • 1337 European beaver (Castor fiber),
  • 1355 Otter (Lutra Lutra).

Staw w rez. Imielty Ług fot. T. Wąsik    Staw w rez. Imielty Ług fot. T. Wąsik

     In the valleys of the rivers, especially Branew, Trzebensz and Biała Rivers there are patches of habitat 6510 lowland and mountains fresh meadows used extensively (Arrhenatherion elatioris), where good living conditions found, for example:

  • 1059 scarce large blue (Maculinea Telesiu),
  • 1060 large copper (Lycaena dispar),
  • 1061 dusky large blue (Maculinea nausithous).

The distinctive geological structure of the area, which is the retention of an impermeable layer of loam, which conditioning shallow retention groundwater level (up to 2m and shallower) and uneven soil coverage conducive to the formation of many endorheic areas. It has great importance in the formation of the natural habitat of a marsh-peatland character. Patches of swamps and bogs occur in the form of patches of different size from 0,2 ha to a few hectares and they are spread throughout the area. The largest areas of patches are located in the Rakowski Swamp and in the Imielty Ług Reserve. Significant accumulation of swamps and bogs occurs to the south of Zaklików, near Nieszawa Ponds to the north of Wola Rzeczycka, to the east from Świnki and near Imielty Ług. In these places have developed the following habitats:

  • 7110 Raised bogs with peat forming vegetation – 250 hectares,
  • 7140 Transitional Mires and bogs (mostly with plants from Scheuchzerio-Caricetea) – 388,35 hectares,
  • 7150 Depressions on peat substrates with vegetation from Rhynchosporion – 8,38 hectares,
  • 91D0 Woods and bog forests (Vaccinio uliginosi-Pinetum)* – 1082hectares.

     In this area predominant soils are made on the basis of quaternary fluvial sands and quaternary aeolian dune tracks. These are Podsols and rusty podsolic, which together occupy approximately 54% of the area. Other soils are glial cells, glial peat, brown podzolised and other. Height differences of area does not exceed several tens of meters. The growing season lasts 217 days on average, average long term temperature equal 7,5 degree and sum of the annual rainfall is of 600 – 700 mm.

     Janowskie Forests are characterized by an extraordinary variety of forests habitats. The largest area is occupied by moist mixed forest habitat (35,1 %) and fresh boron habitat (21,9 %), large part has also moist mixed forest (14,1%) and fresh mixed boron (13,5%). In the main area species which is the most is pine – more than 85% in the share of forest stands. Pine developed here an ecotype which is characterized by good withstand in the shade, flat root system, large annual incensement and ability to natural renewal. Other species are fir (4,6%), alder (4,3%), birch (2,3%), oak (1,1%) and beech (0,9%). Fir in some places creates solid fir forests with natural renewals.

Diversified in this area flora includes 202 plants associations in which 33 are forests. Following habitats occurs in area:

  • 9170 Oak-hornbeam forest (Tilio-Carpinetum),
  • 91E0 willow, poplar, alder and ash riparian (Salicetum albo-fragilis, Populetum albae, Alnenion glutinoso-incanae)* and 91P0 upland mixed fir forest (Abietetum polonicom).

     The greatest diversity was found in communities of water-bog and water – a total nearly 100 groups. As a result of floristic research we inventoried more than 800 vascular plants, including about 50 plants under legal protection. In the area occur 1477 pasque flower (Pulsatilla patens), countries largest accumulation of swamp violet (Viola uliginosa)which is critically endangered according to Polish Red Book (category CR), round – leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), oblong-leaved sundew (Drosera Intermedia), marsh gentian (Gentiana pneumonanthe), stiff clubmoss (Lycopodium annotinum), wolf’s-foot clubmoss (Lycopodium clavatum), victory onion (Allium victorialis), martagon lily (Lilium martagon). (Janowskie Forests landscape Park vegetation – Fiałkowski D. 1997).

     Diversity of natural environments, a large forest area and low population give an opportunity to live for most forest animal spieces occurring in Poland. In a view of large number of animals like moose (Alces alces), deer (Cervus elephus), roe (Capreolus capreolus), there are appropriate conditions for wolves Canis lupus (1352). The area is inhabited by 16-18 wolves, making up 3 sedentary, regularly proliferating packs. Amount of wolves, which live in Janowskie Forests represents 2,6% of the national population of wolves and 23,9% of the Lublin province population.

     Janowskie Forests area is also an important place of occurrence of bats. There is one of the largest population of 1323 Bechstein’s Bat (Myotis bechsteinii).

Głuszec fot. B. Kosiarski

     In the area of project was found more than 150 species of nesting birds.

     Bird survey, carried out in 2010 by the Lublin Ornithological Society, has confirmed the existence of 29 species of birds from Annex I to Council Directive 2009/147/WE of 30 November 2009, including 10 species from Polish Red Book. Janowskie Forests are very important refuge for the capercaillie A108 (Tetrao urogallus) – large burying chicken, galliformes. It is a sedentary bird that prefers vast, old forests with dense undergrowth and mixed stands with rich structure (extensive undergrowth) with a cover of herbs and clumps of berries dwarf shrubs. That kind of flora provides food or shelter. Coniferous complexes serve as habitat for whole year. The presence of numerous streams and water reservoirs, as well as the extend of forest complex creates favorable conditions for the population of the black stork. Part of the site is a feeding ground for short-toed eagle – in the past there was also breeding area of the refuge.

     During the breeding season the area is inhabited by at least 1% of the national population (C6) following bird species:

  • White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla),
  • Black stork (Cicinia nigra),
  • Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus),
  • Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus)

     In relatively high density are:

  • Black kite (Milvus migrant),
  • Honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus),
  • Lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina),
  • Pygmy owl (Glaucidium passerinum).

     The area contains the following species:

  • Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) – 21 males,
  • Little bittern (Ixobrychus minutes) –2-8 pairs,
  • Black stork (Ciconia nigra) –17-20 pairs,
  • Whooper swan (Cygnus cygus) – 1 pair,
  • Honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus) – over 25 pairs,
  • White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) – 6 pairs,
  • Marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) – 55 pairs,
  • Lesser spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina) –5-6 pairs,
  • Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus)–3-6 males,
  • A120 Little crake (Porzana parva) – 4 pairs,
  • A122 Corn crake (Crex crex) 57 – 60 males,
  • A127 Common crane (Grus grus) –24-26 pairs,
  • A217 Pygmy owl (Glaucidium passerinum) –1 male,
  • A220 Ural owl (Strix uralensis) –2 pairs,
  • A223 Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus) – 7-10 pairs,
  • A224 Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus) –300-340 pairs,
  • A229 Common kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) –4-8 pairs,
  • A234 grey-headed woodpecker (Picus canus) –32-40 pairs,
  • A236 black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) –280-320 pairs,
  • A238 middle spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius) – 90-110 pairs,
  • A246 woodlark (Lullula arborea) –350-450 pairs,
  • A307 barred warbler (Sylvia nisoria) –50-100 pairs,
  • A320 red-breasted flycatcher (Ficedula parva)–10 pairs,
  • A321 collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) –6-12 pairs,
  • A338 red-backed shrike (Lanius colurio) –350-450 pairs,
  • A379 ortolan (Emberiza hortulana) –2 pairs

     There are also few species of aquatic birds:

  • Little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) –10-11 pairs,
  • Great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) –24 pairs,
  • Red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena) –4-5 pairs,
  • Mute swan (Cygnus olor) –6 pairs,
  • Greylag goose (Anser anser) –17 pairs,
  • Eurasian teal (Anas crecca) –3 pairs,
  • Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)–307-322 pairs,
  • Common pochard (Aythya ferina) –106-113 pairs,
  • Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula) –54-58 pairs,
  • Water rail (Rallus aquaticus) –39-43 pairs,
  • Common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) –15-17 pairs,
  • Coot (Fulica atra) –158-173 pairs,
  • Little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius) –1 pair,
  • Northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) –6-10 pairs,
  • Common snipe (Gallinago gallinago) –20-35 pairs,

     Reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) –235-254 pairs.

3-1024x683    Bocian czarny fot. Ł. Bednarz

     The project area is also the site of an occurrence of rare species of insects.

     The area has nearly 80% of dragonflies occurring in Poland. Within the Janowskie Forests found 9 species of dragonflies from Poland Red List: Norfolk damselfly (Coenagrion armatum), Southern hawker (Aeshna affinis), green hawker (Aeshna viridis), common hawker (Aeshna Juncewa), aeschna peat (Aeshna subarctica) (the Lublin region is the only place of occurrence), golden-ringed dragonfly (Cordulegaster boltonii), lilypad whiteface (Leucorrhinia caudalis) and dark whiteface (Leucorrhinia albifrons). There is also a representative of a boreal mountain fauna representative – arctic emerald.

     The area has nearly 80% of dragonflies occurring in Poland. Within the Janowskie Forests found 9 species of dragonflies from Poland Red List: Norfolk damselfly (Coenagrion armatum), Southern hawker (Aeshna affinis), green hawker (Aeshna viridis), common hawker (Aeshna Juncewa), aeschna peat (Aeshna subarctica) (the Lublin region is the only place of occurrence), golden-ringed dragonfly (Cordulegaster boltonii), lilypad whiteface (Leucorrhinia caudalis) and dark whiteface (Leucorrhinia albifrons). There is also a representative of a boreal mountain fauna representative – arctic emerald.